History has not been kind to Robert Komer, a casualty of bad historical analysis and inaccurate information. A Cold War national security policy and strategy adviser to three presidents, Komer was one of the most influential national security professionals of the era. The book begins with a review of his early life that helped shape his worldview. It then examines Komer's influence as a National Security Council staff member during the Kennedy administration, where he helped set its activist course regarding the Third World. Upon Kennedy's death, Lyndon Johnson named Komer his "point man" for Vietnam pacification policy, and later General Westmoreland's operational deputy in Vietnam. The author highlights Komer's activities during the three years he strove to fulfill the president's vision that Communism could be repelled from Southeast Asia by economic and social development along with military force. Known as "Blowtorch" for his abrasive personality and disdain for bureaucratic foot dragging, Komer came to be seen as the right person for managing that effort, and in 1968 was rewarded with an ambassadorship to Turkey. The book analyzes Komer's work during the Carter administration as special adviser to Secretary of Defense Harold Brown and Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and credits him for reenergizing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's conventional capability and forging the military instrument that implemented the Carter Doctrine in the Persian Gulf--the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force. It also explores his final role as a defense intellectual and critic of the Reagan administration's defense policies. The book concludes with a useful summary of Komer's impact on American policy and strategy and his contributions to counterinsurgency practices, a legacy now recognized for its importance in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The Defining Years of the Dutch East Indies, 1942-1949: Survivors' Accounts of Japanese Invasion and Enslavement of Europeans and the Revolution That
Following their invasion of Java on March 1, 1942, the Japanese began a process of Japanization of the archipelago, banning every remnant of Dutch rule. Over the next three years, more than 100,000 Dutch citizens were shipped to Japanese internment camps and more than four million romushas, forced Indonesian laborers, were enlisted in the Japanese war effort. The Japanese occupation stimulated the development of Indonesian independence movements. Headed by Sukarno, a longtime admirer of Japan, nationalist forces declared their independence on August 17, 1945. For Dutch citizens, Dutch-Indonesians or "Indos," and pro-Dutch Indonesians, Sukarno's declaration marked the beginning of a new wave of terror. These powerful and often poignant stories from survivors of the Japanese occupation and subsequent turmoil surrounding Indonesian independence provide one with a vivid portrait of the hardships faced during the period.
This book tells the little-known stories of three all-Jewish battalions formed in the British army as part of the Allies' Middle East campaign, recruiting soldiers from the United States, Canada, England, and Argentina. Many of the soldiers, ranging widely in education level, social class, and combat experience, were displaced immigrants or children of such immigrants. Together, they coalesced into the all-Jewish battalions: "the liberators of the Promised Land."The ranks of the Jewish Legions included some who would become prominent leaders, such as David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, and Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Israel's second president; however, this book focuses on the experiences of ordinary soldiers who served alongside them. Drawing on diaries, memoirs, and letters, the book follows their journey at sea through unrestricted submarine warfare; by trains and trucks through Europe, Egypt, and Palestine; and their battlefield experiences. The authors show how these Yiddish-speaking young men forged a new kind of soldier identity with unique Jewish features, as well as an evolving sense of nationalism.
In 2003, 85 years after the armistice, it took Richard Rubin months to find just one living American veteran of World War I. But then, he found another. And another. Eventually he managed to find dozens, aged 101 to 113, and interview them. All are gone now. A decade-long odyssey to recover the story of a forgotten generation and their Great War led Rubin across the United States and France, through archives, private collections, and battlefields, literature, propaganda, and even music. But at the center of it all were the last of the last, the men and women he met: a new immigrant, drafted and sent to France, whose life was saved by a horse; a Connecticut Yankee who volunteered and fought in every major American battle; a Cajun artilleryman nearly killed by a German aeroplane; an 18-year-old Bronx girl “drafted” to work for the War Department; a machine-gunner from Montana; a Marine wounded at Belleau Wood; the 16-year-old who became America’s last WWI veteran; and many, many more. They were the final survivors of the millions who made up the American Expeditionary Forces, nineteenth-century men and women living in the twenty-first century. Self-reliant, humble, and stoic, they kept their stories to themselves for a lifetime, then shared them at the last possible moment, so that they, and the World War they won – the trauma that created our modern world – might at last be remembered. You will never forget them. The Last of the Doughboys is more than simply a war story: It is a moving meditation on character, grace, aging, and memory.
Nonviolent Revolutions: Civil Resistance in the Late 20th Century (Oxford Studies in Culture and Politics)
In the spring of 1989, Chinese workers and students captured global attention as they occupied Tiananmen Square, demanded political change, and were tragically suppressed by the Chinese army. Months later, East German civilians rose up nonviolently, brought down the Berlin Wall, and dismantled their regime. Although both movements used tactics of civil resistance, their outcomes were different. Why? In Nonviolent Revolutions, Sharon Erickson Nepstad examines these and other uprisings in Panama, Chile, Kenya, and the Philippines. Taking a comparative approach that includes both successful and failed cases of nonviolent resistance, Nepstad analyzes the effects of movements' strategies along with the counter-strategies regimes developed to retain power. She shows that a significant influence on revolutionary outcomes is security force defections, and explores the reasons why soldiers defect or remain loyal and the conditions that increase the likelihood of mutiny. She then examines the impact of international sanctions, finding that they can at times harm movements by generating new allies for authoritarian leaders or by shifting the locus of power from local civil resisters to international actors. Nonviolent Revolutions offers essential insights into the challenges that civil resisters face and elucidates why some of these movements failed. With a recent surge of popular uprisings across the Middle East, this book provides a valuable new understanding of the dynamics and potency of civil resistance and nonviolent revolt.
The use of American Prisoners of War (POW) as slave labor by the Japanese is a story that has been left untold in most history books and is unknown by many today. Ninety percent of the POWs who perished in World War II died in Japanese prison camps. In these pages, Andy Andrews tells his personal story of three and a half years of captivity as a Japanese POW. He talks about brave U.S. soldiers who were used as slave labor for Japanese Corporations, survived starvation, torture and extreme Japanese brutality. While in captivity he survived 19 days in the hull of the Japanese hell ship Nagata Maru, Cabanatuan Prison camp, various prison camps in Osaka & Tsuruga, starvation, torture and countless acts of brutality by the Japanese. While in the camps, he and his fellow POWs risked their lives to engage in sabotage to defuse bombs, disable military components, and disrupt cargo shipments. The number of lives saved by the diffused bombs, disrupted shipments and other similar acts will never be known, but their bravery and fortitude will be, through this book. So, we invite you to take this journey with us and experience a time and events that are seldom discussed or documented, see them as an American soldier saw them and you too will be amazed at the bravery, loyalty and mettle of American soldiers. Andy Andrews was awarded with numerous commendations and citations including: the Bronze Star, the POW medal, Presidential Citation With Two Oak Leaf Clusters, the Philippine Defense Medal with 3 battle stars, the American Defense Medal with 3 Battle Stars, Asiatic/Pacific Theater medal with 2 battle stars, Good Conduct Medal, Philippine Presidential Unit Citation and the Combat Action Ribbon.
HIROSHIMA By JOHN HERSEY PUBLISHERS NOTE ON Monday, August 6th, 1945, a new era in human history opened. After years of intensive research and experiment, conducted In their later stages mainly in America., by scientists of many nationalities, Japanese among them, the forces which hold together the con stituent particles of the atom had at last been harnessed to mans use: and on that day man used them. By a decision of the American military authorities, made, It Is said, in defiance of the protests of many of the scientists who had worked on the project, an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. As a direct result, some 600,000 Japanese men, women and children were killed, and 100,000 injured and almost the whole of a great seaport, a city of 250,000 people, was destroyed by blast or by fire. As an indirect result, a few days later, Japan acknowledged defeat, and the Second World War came to an end. For many months little exact and reliable news about the details of the destruction wrought by the first atomic bomb reached Western readers. Millions of words were written, in Europe and American ex plaining the marvellous new powers that science had placed in mens hands describing the researches and experiments that had led up to this greatest of all disclosures of Natures secrets: discussing the problems for mans future which the new weapon raised. Argument waxed furious a to the ethics of the bomb: should the Japanese have received advance warning of Americas intention to use It ? Should a demonstration bomb have been exploded In the presence of enemy observers in some remote spot where it would do a minimum of damage, as a warning to the Japanese people, before its first serious use? But of the feelings and reactions of the people of Hiroshima to the bomb, nothing, or at least nothing that was not pure imagina tion, could be written for nothing was known. In May, 1946, The New Yorker sent John Hersey, journalist and author of A Bell for Adano, to the Far East to find out what had really happened at Hiroshima : to interview survivors of the catastrophe, to endeavour to describe what they had seen and felt and thought, what the destruction of their city, their lives and homes and hopes and friends, had meant to them in short, the cost of the bomb in terms of human suffering and reaction to suffering. He stayed in Japan for a month, gathering his own material with little, if any, help from the occupying authorities he obtained the stories from actual witnesses. The characters in his account are living individuals, not composite types. The story is their own story, told as far as possible in their own words. On August 31st, 1946, Herseys story was made public. For the first time in The New Yorkers career an issue appeared which, within the familiar covers, bearing for such covers are prepared long in advance picnic scene, carried no satire, no cartoonss no fiction, no verse or smart quips or shopping notes: nothing but its advertisement matter and Herseys 30,000 word story.
How did the conflict between Vietnamese nationalists and French colonial rulers erupt into a major Cold War struggle between communism and Western liberalism? To understand the course of the Vietnam wars, it is essential to explore the connections between events within Vietnam and global geopolitical currents in the decade after the Second World War. In this illuminating work, leading scholars examine various dimensions of the struggle between France and Vietnamese revolutionaries that began in 1945 and reached its climax at Dien Bien Phu. Several essays break new ground in the study of the Vietnamese revolution and the establishment of the political and military apparatus that successfully challenged both France and the United States. Other essays explore the roles of China, France, Great Britain, and the United States, all of which contributed to the transformation of the conflict from a colonial skirmish to a Cold War crisis. Taken together, the essays enable us to understand the origins of the later American war in Indochina by positioning Vietnam at the center of the grand clash between East and West and North and South in the middle years of the twentieth century.
Conventional wisdom holds that Jews killed in Poland immediately after World War II were victims of ubiquitous Polish anti-Semitism. This book traces the roots of Polish-Jewish conflict after the war, demonstrating that it was a two-sided phenomenon and not simply an extension of the Holocaust. The author argues that violence developed after the Soviet takeover of Poland amid postwar retribution and counter-retribution and was exacerbated by the breakdown of law and order and a raging Polish anti-Communist insurgency. Meanwhile, Jewish Communists fought to establish a revolutionary Marxist-Leninist regime. Some Jewish avengers endeavored to extract justice from Poles who allegedly harmed Jews during the War and in some cases Jews attempted to reclaim property confiscated by the Nazis. These phenomena reinforced the stereotype of zydokomuna, a Jewish-Communist conspiracy, and Poles reacted with violence.
All American presidents are commanders in chief by law. Few perform as such in practice. In Roosevelt’s Centurions, distinguished historian Joseph E. Persico reveals how, during World War II, Franklin D. Roosevelt seized the levers of wartime power like no president since Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. Declaring himself “Dr. Win-the-War,” FDR assumed the role of strategist in chief, and, though surrounded by star-studded generals and admirals, he made clear who was running the war. FDR was a hands-on war leader, involving himself in everything from choosing bomber targets to planning naval convoys to the design of landing craft. Persico explores whether his strategic decisions, including his insistence on the Axis powers’ unconditional surrender, helped end or may have prolonged the war. Taking us inside the Allied war councils, the author reveals how the president brokered strategy with contentious allies, particularly the iron-willed Winston Churchill; rallied morale on the home front; and handpicked a team of proud, sometimes prickly warriors who, he believed, could fight a global war. Persico’s history offers indelible portraits of the outsize figures who roused the “sleeping giant” that defeated the Axis war machine: the dutiful yet independent-minded George C. Marshall, charged with rebuilding an army whose troops trained with broomsticks for rifles, eggs for hand grenades; Dwight Eisenhower, an unassuming Kansan elevated from obscurity to command of the greatest fighting force ever assembled; the vainglorious Douglas MacArthur; and the bizarre battlefield genius George S. Patton. Here too are less widely celebrated military leaders whose contributions were just as critical: the irascible, dictatorial navy chief, Ernest King; the acerbic army advisor in China, “Vinegar” Joe Stilwell; and Henry H. “Hap” Arnold, who zealously preached the gospel of modern air power. The Roosevelt who emerges from these pages is a wartime chess master guiding America’s armed forces to a victory that was anything but foreordained. What are the qualities we look for in a commander in chief? In an era of renewed conflict, when Americans are again confronting the questions that FDR faced—about the nature and exercise of global power—Roosevelt’s Centurions is a timely and revealing examination of what it takes to be a wartime leader in a freewheeling, complicated, and tumultuous democracy.Praise for Roosevelt’s Centurions “FDR’s centurions were my heroes and guides. Now Joe Persico has written the best account of those leaders I've ever read.”—Colin L. Powell “Benefiting from his years of studying Franklin Roosevelt and his times, Joseph Persico has brought us a briskly paced story with much wisdom and new insights on FDR, his military liege men, World War II, and political and military leadership.”—Michael Beschloss, author of Presidential Courage: Brave Leaders and How They Changed America 1789–1989 “Long wars demand long books, but these are 550 pages of lively prose by a good writer who knows his subject. . . . A fine, straightforward politics-and-great-men history.”—Kirkus Reviews “Persico makes a persuasive case that FDR was clearly in charge of the most important decisions of the American war plan.”—The Washington Times
From the Foreword when this book was originally published in Hanoi in 1979: "The national liberation revolution can only succeed if it accords with the world revolutionary movement and authentic patriotism in our time cannot dissociate itself from internationalism - this leading idea which has inspired the Vietnamese revolution for nearly half a century was introduced into Vietnam by President Ho Chi Minh. While struggling for its independence, the Vietnamese people knows that millions and millions of comrades and friends are fighting by its side and that it's own sacrifices also serve the just cause of other peoples. With this in mind, we have collected writings and speeches of President Ho Chi Minh in the period from 1920 to 1969. In simple terms they gave a well-defined orientation to the Vietnamese revolutionary movement and greatly contributed to its victory."
Second Chance: In Combat with the Us 'Texas' Infantry, the OSS, and the French Resistance During the Liberation of France, 1943-1946
Despite the huge proliferation of books about almost every conceivable aspect of World War II, few accounts manage to recreate the personal experience of war in a combat zone. Each veteran brought his own memoir with him, ricocheting around in his head, but few have had the combination of literary skill, self-knowledge, and desire to get it down on paper. Private Steve Weiss of the 36th "Texas Infantry, U.S. Army, is one of the few who had that elusive combination, and even so, it took him almost a lifetime to put it all together. In "Second Chance: In Combat with the US "Texas" Infantry, the OSS, and the French Resistance during the Liberation of France, 1943-1946", Weiss, a psychotherapist who possesses a doctorate in War studies, sheds much of that aspect of his life to explore the kid who hit the beaches of Southern France in 1944. Although this part of the memoir could easily make a rousing adventure story - Weiss and his buddies, separated from their unit, spend time with the French Resistance and the OSS and Weiss winds up with a Croix de Guerre from the former and a silver plaque from the latter - the author is too honest to make it just a series of clips from a Hollywood movie. Almost constant anxiety, clumsiness in operating among dangerous men who speak a language he speaks and understands imperfectly, participating in a botched execution of a French collaborator - all of these stories come across the authentic voice of a kid trying to be tougher and more worldly than he was - or is. Once transferred back to the infantry and sent to the killing grounds in Germany, Weiss lives through a nightmare rather than an adventure - he and others desert, he gets court-martialed, sent to prison, is helped by a sympathetic psychologist, and winds up as an Army photographer. All of these decidedly un-heroic actions receive the same unblinkingly honest treatment, as do his post-war peregrinations as a photographer of generals and movie stars and a poignant love affair with a French woman. At the end of "Second Chance", the older Weiss, by now the only American to have received the Medaille de la Resistance Francaise and hold the rank of Officier in the French Legion of Honor, looks up many of the people he met during the war, from Resistance comrades to the officers whose incompetence contributed to his decision to desert. Some are changed and some are dead, but all are bound by a shared experience of war that transcends the decades and even mortality itself. Few memoirs convey both the sordidness and exaltation of life in war more honestly than "Second Chance". It succeeds as an historical and psychological study, one of value to any serious student of the human side of war.
The Arab Spring unexpectedly developed in late 2010 with peaceful protests in a number of Arab countries against long-standing, entrenched regimes, and rapid political change across the region ensued. The Arab Spring: Change and Resistance in the Middle East examines these revolutions and their aftermath. Noted authorities writing specifically for this volume contribute chapters focusing on countries directly or indirectly involved, illuminating the immediate and long-term impacts of the revolutions in the region and throughout the world. A thoughtful concluding chapter ties together key themes, while also delineating persistent myths and misinterpretations. This is an essential volume for students and scholars of the Middle East, as well as anyone seeking a fuller understanding of region and what may lie ahead.
During the four years General Creighton W. Abrams was commander in Vietnam, he and his staff made more than 455 tape recordings of briefings and meetings. In 1994, with government approval, Lewis Sorley began transcribing and analyzing the tapes. Sorley’s laborious, time-consuming effort has produced a picture of the senior U.S. commander in Vietnam and his associates working to prosecute a complex and challenging military campaign in an equally complex and difficult political context.The concept of the nature of the war and the way it was conducted changed during Abrams’s command. The progressive buildup of U.S. forces was reversed, and Abrams became responsible for turning the war back to the South Vietnamese.The edited transcriptions in this volume clearly reflect those changes in policy and strategy. They include briefings called the Weekly Intelligence Estimate Updates as well as meetings with such visitors as the secretary of defense, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and other high-ranking officials. In Vietnam Chronicles we see, for the first time, the difficult task that Creighton Abrams accomplished with tact and skill.
The Internment of Western Civilians under the Japanese 1941-1945: A Patchwork of Internment (Routledgecurzon Studies in the Modern History of Asia)
Anyone with an interest in the Second World War in the Far East is familiar with military and Prisoner-of-War narratives. But how the 130,000 British, Dutch and American civilian men, women and children captured and interned by the Japanese in the Far Eaast during the same period survived their internment is less well-known. How did these colonial people react to the sudden humiliation of surrender? How did they adapt to three-and-a-half years in Japanese camps in China, Hong Kong, Singapore, the Philippines and the Dutch East Indies? The Internment of Western Civilians under the Japanese 1941-1945 addresses these questions. Bernice Archer's comparative study of the experiences of the Western civilians interned by the Japanese in mixed family camps and sexually segregated camps in the Far East combines a wide variety of conventional and unconventional source material. This includes: contemporary War, Foreign and Colonial Office papers, diaries, letters, camp newspapers and artefacts and post-war medical, engineering and educational reports, biographies, autobiographies, memoirs and over fifty oral interviews with ex-internees. An investigation of evacuation policies reveals the moral, economic, political, emotional and racial dilemmas faced by the imperial powers and the colonial communities in the Far East.
Special Signed Limited Leather-bound Edition First Entry in the Honor Harrington Series. Baen Books celebrates a twenty years of Honor with the reissue of the book that started it all: internationally best-selling phenomenon David Weber’s On Basilisk Station.Special Leather-bound Edition.Baen Books celebrates twenty years of the Honor Harrington saga with the reissue of the first book in the series: multiple New York Times best-seller David Weber’s On Basilisk Station. The Book That Started It All! Honor Harrington has been exiled to Basilisk station and given an antique ship to police the system. The vindictive superior who sent her there wants her to fail. But he made one mistake; he's made her mad... About On Basilisk Station:“Without question SF's most popular military-themed series, the Honor Harrington novels are also among the genre's most intelligent, exciting and rewarding. On Basilisk Station, the series' premiere volume, is a spectacular piece of action storytelling that does virtually everything right.”—SF Reviews About David Weber and the Honor Harrington series: “. . .everything you could want in a heroine….excellent…plenty of action.”–Science Fiction Age “Brilliant! Brilliant! Brilliant!”–Anne McCaffrey “Compelling combat combined with engaging characters for a great space opera adventure.”–Locus “Weber combines realistic, engaging characters with intelligent technological projection. . .Fans of this venerable space opera will rejoice. . .”–Publishers Weekly Comprehensive Teacher's Guide available.
Historians have been unkind to the 26th Division of the U.S. Army during World War I. Despite playing a significant role in all the major engagements of the American Expeditionary Force, the Yankee Division,” as it was commonly known, and its beloved commanding officer, Maj. Gen. Clarence Edwards, were often at odds with Gen. John J. Pershing. Subsequently, the Yankee Division became the A.E.F.’s whipping boy,” a reputation that has largely continued to the present day. In The Yankee Division in the First World War, author Michael E. Shay mines a voluminous body of first-person accounts to set forth an accurate record of the Yankee Division in Francea record that is, as he reports, better than most.” Shay sheds new light on the ongoing conflict in leadership and notes that two of the division’s regiments received the coveted Croix de Guerre, the first ever awarded to an American unit. This first-rate study should find a welcome place on military history bookshelves, both for scholars and students of the Great War and for interested general readers.
An honor killing shatters and transforms the lives of Turkish immigrants in 1970s London Internationally bestselling Turkish author Elif Shafak’s new novel is a dramatic tale of families, love, and misunderstandings that follows the destinies of twin sisters born in a Kurdish village. While Jamila stays to become a midwife, Pembe follows her Turkish husband, Adem, to London, where they hope to make new lives for themselves and their children. In London, they face a choice: stay loyal to the old traditions or try their best to fit in. After Adem abandons his family, Iskender, the eldest son, must step in and become the one who will not let any shame come to the family name. And when Pembe begins a chaste affair with a man named Elias, Iskender will discover that you could love someone with all your heart and yet be ready to hurt them. Just published to great acclaim in England, Honor is a powerful, gripping exploration of guilt and innocence, loyalty and betrayal, and the trials of the immigrant, as well as the love and heartbreak that too often tear families apart.